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annenberg media ♪ captioning sponsored enberg/cpb narrator: since 19, latin america has been one of e most rapidly urbanizing regions on eart
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nowhere are the sults more dramatic than in sao paulo, brazil, the third largest city in the world. in this anatomy of a mega-city, we'll explore: the urban geography of immigration and ethnic diversity, thsquatter settlements and self-construction. sao paulo, brazil. with its crowded boulevards and massive skyscrapers, it seems awealthy as any city in the world. sao paulo is unique among latin american cities. in the early part of t, when places like rio de janeiro copied traditional european styles of construction, sao paulo was following a distinctly american model of urbanism. imitating the forms of chicago and new york,
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sao paulo built upward,gro. but in a huge ring around ty slies a very different,gro. urban environment. here, stretchingoriles, is a city of self-built structures in various stages of completion. they line hillsides and rocky streets where some of sao paulo's newest immigrants struggo build mes om brick and cen where some of sao paulo's alaide and her family came to sao paulo from northeastern brazil. ( alaide speaking portuguese ) translator: from there my father came first to work. came i as a maid,my motwas amsts narrator:alaide mar, a northeaste mignt ke herse. they coun't afford even mar, the cheapestenthcity, so they decided to bui a home
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on unclaimed land on the outskirts of sao paulo. they began building this house when their first daughtewas. 11 years ago, ( alaide saking uguese ) they began building this house whentranslator:t daughtewas. whenhe was eightonths old, we moved to th house. first we me three rooms... then wrent them out to hp things a bit. we then builfo rooms on top, and that's where we are now. we wilcoinue build on but it's not clearor: migrts lalaide josé build. will ever be part of the wealthy ci that seems so far away. tokyo in east asia, along with los angeles in the u.s. and mexico city, are defined by geographers for their enormous size. tountryazil, the mega-city ofaoau
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has joined the ranks of these world-famousetpolises, a population of 1milliopeople at the startof t 21st century. sao paulo is a city of immigras, at the startof t 21st century. who built it neighborhood by neighborhood. the first immigrants to arrive were portuguese explorers and jesuit missionaries, wlanguage a religio 1554 ans bureal growth did not begin until the 19th ctury. between 1880 and the 1950s, more tn ve million italians came to sao paulo, atacted by jobs in a booming coffee industry. along with these agricultural workers came small business owners and craftsmen who established an italian enclave cled bixiga on the outskirts othe city. ,
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geographer fisco scarlatost nestudies immigration patterns, assimilation anthe expansion of sao paulo. r him,iss t oncamic. he was an artisan anhe. myaterl grandfher came at the beginning ofhe century. narrator e factory is sti inthan ever.y day,bigger l bias sao pau grew around it,ed and rthe neighborhoodecameave. an important part of the city's mainstream. but the italians did not have bixiga to themselves for long. (drmi sea after slavery was abolished in brazil in 1888,
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freed slaves moved into the city. they were attractoixaby i ine. their afro-brazilian legacy is still evident toy in vai-vai, @@ the (espeaking portugueseh)ol. translator fothe black culture, the school is part ofe ighbor. rresents the neighborhood, t. the neighborhood it has blacks, africans, anvai-vai is an exession of at. ( samba-style drumming ) speaking portuguese ) translator: the city absorbed the different waves of immigras, but each group had troubleinteg, because it was so divee. soach group created its own little world. you can't say the city has one identity today;
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each group bui(twild cheeringt). rrator: although they began arriving in 1908 each group japanese immigration to brazil acceleted llowing world war ii. the devastation suffered by japan sent a wave of immigrants looking for new opportunities outside their country. sao paulo was a popular destination. thjapanese settled in a ighborhood calliade. today, sao paulooasts the largest pulation of japanese ople and their idescendants outside of japan. but do people here considermselves to be azil? translator: el more brazilian than japanese. anslator: eu também. me, too. interviewer: por que? translator: because i was born here, live here. i've never been to japan.
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translator: more japanese, but also brazilian, because my children and grandcldren are all brazilian. but when japan and brazil play against each other, i cheer for the japanese-- my children, for brazil. ( speaking portuguese, laughing ) kingore ) translator: i was born in japan, kingore ) but now i'veeen in bl fomany years. i'm now brazilian. narrator by 1960, when thisave of immigration had slowed, the city, bulging at its seams, boasted 13 million residents. and then yet another group of immigrants began to pouin. ( children shouting ) this group came from brazil's. between 1955 and 1980, more than fi million arrived,
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attracted by the promise of work and a better life. but an already crowded city could not absorb them. so they began to build tir own homes and neighborhoods, brick by brick, on the periphery. this so-called "self-construction" caused the city to spread even farther. ( scarlato speaking portuguese ) translator: the gigantic size of sao paulo, in a horizontal sense, is aesult of self-cotruction. in a chaotic, disorganized way, without planning, it spoaneousen e in all direcons. rrator: today, sao paulo h swelled toncompass over 300 square miles, stretching more than 50 miles from end to en many oe new neigorhoods were b on stee stabmostere nocognizedy
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many oe new neigorhoods but some neighborhoodsny, . did progress. jardim valkíria, or "garden othe valkyries," was fas a colctionatters mof cardboard scks.ago slowly, solid ildings appeared. stores and ches opened, streets were paved and some utilities were installed. bus routes connected the neighborhood to the city center. t wiouofficial recogtind owners, these peopleemain squatters. so their community leaders are negotiating with the city government for land titles and city services. (speaking portugues ) translator:itles the first things we want here are day care, a health clinic and a school. these are the three things we need most urgently. narrator: if these newest migrants receive official recognition,
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a path toward assimilationh behind and integratiofore them, translator: i wa to stay here, fish t house and connue. the k. naator immigratioto saoaulo s slowedgain, ( speaking porguese )slato, but birth rates coinue rease the pulaon. weet a swi dow orwiroctop exceg ib th inhs ci, which, rinher case, s crsed.twtofheop sao o willontinutoe onof world's mega-cies. the urban geography of immigration and ethnic diversity
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real a complex pattern of squatter settlements and self-construction. with luck and hard work, the newest residents will get their chance to share in the wealth and sophistication thats sao paulo. narrator: large tropicalaiforestsns are qukly shing.rld, here we examine seral emes,s, b than sincluding:16% of bzis rt
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opical foresecology; maalof sustainabelopmeasuc and ; the amazon rain forest-- and its dirsity ofife.worldfor s the forest ecosystem is delicate bae oflants and animals, soil and water. like geography, ecology is an integrative science, bringingogether many problems into one view. ecologist daelepstad whether he gheria is resinheorescanopyec of wors. mapng ion cpute a spatial pl the ture othe amazon, ndstan t future. tonderstan
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we reay haveo go back in time and ink abouthe first people who arrived in the amazo, ndstan t future. tonderstan who camep the vers-- and ink abouthe first people who arrived in the amazo, and even these psentedobsta. ndstan t future. tonderstan ifouo h on many of tseibutariess who anradsthe vers-- rrator:chthe ritrafs atoawhh locat in amazoa in the 1h century eud and built cities like belém, the rain forest was seen as a rich, but impenetrableesource. until the 1970s, belém was accessible to the rest of brazil only by water. then came a wave of road building. so farthe major investmes theaerenof theasure coenatedg analong e sout then came a wave of road building. withoaou have cheaper cesso th, so farthe major investmes theaerenof theasure coenatedg and with cheaper access, a lot of economic activities become profitable.
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narrator: two of the biggest activities are cattle ranching and farming. ( chain saw buzzing ) buthe one at clears the land everything else isogging. so whole newowns sprang up herlocated in pará state.nas, this is a boomtown, home to more than 80 sawmills. this is brazil's frontier, a land of opportunity chnortama's oners bumany othe most importantt sos new roads intohe intiorresents e still dirt and not paved.
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paving greatly accelerates the change. nepstad: and what we're going to do is just look a little bit into the fute, imagining th these roads, which are still dirt roads, are all paved, as is slated by the federal government of brazil. narrator: in this simulation, the growing red area represents new deforestation every two years up to the year 2020. so as these roads are paved, deforestation is basically going to march up along those roads. instead of all the deforestation being concentrated along theast and south, we've made inroads into the core of the basin. narrator: at the southern edge of that core, a new economic force is pushing t pavement north. from space, we see fields of soybeans etched in the shrinking forest. brazil is about to overtake the u.s. as the world's leading producer of soy, exporting their crop to millions of chinese consumers
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and european livestock growers. the soy farmers of mato grosso are very keen on having asphalt so that they can ship their soybeans to the santarém port anpuit on oceangoing freighte and serve the world markets that way. it's much cheaper that way than to go south to the big brazilian ports down south. as that pavement goes through, the ancillary effect of paving, of course, will be to make it cheaper for everyone to do business along that corridor. but let's just imagine for a second two different trajectories for this road. he we see the portion that's not yet been paved-- santarém up here, mato grosso down here. in a business-as-usual situation, as paving goes in here, people will move in along the highways, driven largely by land speculation interests, putting cattle pastures, shifting cultivation. and we can see the deforestation frontier rapidly eanding along this road. but there is reason to think
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that another scenario is possible. narrator: the lower rates of deforestation are based onovernmen ctivrcin the environmental laws on the books. brazil has received some help from some new technology and from other ecologists, including chris uhl. uhl is the founder of imazon, a research institute located in the city of belém. the law in pará state says that 50% of all private land must be maintained in forest. until recently, that was very hard to monitor. now, using a system of satellites okgps is casearcher clos sousaitiing realowhat it allows us to do is to pickp signals from the satellites. and through ocess of triangulation we can locate ouels rylyn gr
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and through ocess to within about ten meters. four... ey've got ur saites now. we are... probably... in this... area. mm-hmm. narrator: if the government chooses, it can use gps to locate property lines on satlite photographs of the landscape. they can then determine how much of a farmer's land has beenleared but enforcement is stty. anotg problem is thenefficient way the cleared land is being used. the most common farming and grazing method here requires the farmer to cut tousandofirm spe,t it dry.ll set by farmers during the dry season to release the nutrients from the vegetation. but the soil's producvity disappears,n sometimes in one or two years. it forces settlers to abandon their land
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and cut more forest elsewhere. because this requires more land all the time, it is a form of extensive agriculture. it's called "shifting," "swidden" it's practiced inany s or "slash-and-burn" cultivatio until the forest runs out. this land waabandodby sg cs a few years earlier. the sight of new trees led chris uhl to a surprising and controversial revelation. uhl: when firststted wog w, i ally thought that the las were extrely fragile. wasn'a sssite twas usedor a ste e,t wthats ece of landed uhl: when firststted wog w, and yet, if u look over here woulha stayesort ofegded oll wasn'a sssite twas usedor a ste e,t wthats ece of landed uhl: ye's clearlyststted wog w, and going here this is really a surprise for me.digiatort.
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almeetnk wgiofand beganin oure that geeyoknow, mae ese systems not wgiofand beganin oure as as had exctedan in fact, ae sot n really a whe no lofeseaors resear h has to devise development guidelines for ranchers, farmers and foresters. for example, if loggers would cut trees more selectively and plan their logging roads lessestively, trwould regrow more quickly in areas whehey ha worked. satellite images show why that is so important. . whenhey cut, many surrounding ees we eangled sainhe same ness show bulldozers damaged largereas . trying to remove and store e trees. t inhis area vines were cut fm sected trees the year before.
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to remove just the desired trees with much less damage.s uhl: now, if we look into the following year, the forest scar, the logging scar here has disappeared. up here, we can still see some of that scar. openings up here are so big that one year later, they still haven't been covered by regrowing vines and regrowing forest vegetation. here they have. narrator: the method allows the logger sustainable harvests over many decades, and it helps everyone in the amazon avoid a growingroblem. the reduced canopy from the indiscriminate harvest and allows the sun to drythe amazon e forest floor,roblem. just adding to the fire haza fire and smoke plus reduced vegion actually chang the micro-climate, decreasing the rainfall and further increasing fires. it's a vicious cycle that is broken by careful tree harvests.
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as chris uhl learned, e ees grow backif you give . s scovery len even bigger: if ranchers and farmers could use their land more efficiently and for longer periods of time, perhaps both developmentalng new and environmental needs could be accommodated. it has to do with the difference between extensive and intensive agriculture. and bynsive an thinking about as a viable alternative isn that a g pof ldwiitode,l taeaafr now, t tine capoachustaable. of course,
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narrator: rnear belém, small farms shave been practicing intensive agriculture for decades. by mixing a variety of crops and by using locally produced organic and mineral fertilizers, thanontinue to farm the same piece of la fony years. anvae op an ince eir income thanontinepstad:arm tthese systems include trees or other perennial crops, fruit crops, black pepper, cacao-- which is chocolate. even cattle ranching can be made to be more or less sustainable. narrator: intensification means experimenting with new breeds of cattle and grasses, and it mean allowing some pastures to recover while cattle graze in others. ( speaking portuguese ) translator: because grazing was degrading my fields, the farm didn't have a means to produce new grass. ( continuing in portuguese ) so, i decided to research what i'd seen done in other places
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and i intensified my planting. of course, there was an initial cost, but the return has been good, and it's paying for itself. narrator: these practices work well on a small scale in the eastern amazon, but can they be used throughout amazonia? this remains to be seen. the first results of this research showed that we have aroun 50% to 60% of the state appropriate for loggg. that we have aroun and whene put together... state narrator: imazon has determined that, overall, about 20% of pará state's land area could potentially be developed. with the use of regional maps, imazon is helping to plan a future that is acceptable to both environmentalists and developers. in doing so, they walk a thin line.
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...that are not appropriate for logging. aroacwhh certaiyharacterize asvalu touslywo diversityprene rzehat will continue toe inhabited. and the goal is to come up with win/win situation tense that conservation of the forest occurs that bio-diversity is preserved, and also that people that live in this landscape have a high and just quality of life. narrator: this balancing act must take place in an environment that is more resilient than scientists once thought. ate prsures on the forestse tha: thgi they include further drying provoked by deforestatio by el niño, by global warming. they include extensive agriculture,
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which provides abundant sources of ignition for forests that are rendered flammable by drought or by logging. and all of those are coming together in an expanding frontier that's going to move up along the roads that are being paved into the heart of the world's largest rain forest.
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captioned by media access group at wgbh annenberg media ♪ for information about this and other annenberg media programs call 1-800-learner and visit us at
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Deutsche Welle Journal
LINKTV November 15, 2012 11:00am-11:30am PST

News/Business. International news and analysis. (Stereo)

TOPIC FREQUENCY Sao Paulo 16, Brazil 13, Japan 5, Chris Uhl 3, Belém 2, Amazon 2, Pará 2, Imazon 2, Brazilian 2, U.s. 2, Amazo 2, Bixiga 2, Fothe Black 1, Alaide Mar 1, Sainhe 1, Fisco Scarlatost 1, Naator Immigratioto Saoaulo 1, Wgbh 1, Narrator 1, Valkyries 1
Network LINKTV
Duration 00:30:00
Rating PG
Scanned in San Francisco, CA, USA
Source Comcast Cable
Tuner Channel 89 (615 MHz)
Video Codec mpeg2video
Audio Cocec ac3
Pixel width 544
Pixel height 480
Sponsor Internet Archive
Audio/Visual sound, color

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on 11/15/2012